Role of Gut Microbiota for Good Health | Original Article
Microbes are in close association with complex organisms, such as plants and humans, by establishing mutualism, ammensalism and parasitic relationship with their host. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the host metabolism, immune system and neurological development as well. The disturbance in the gut microbiota results in some of the most widespread diseases namely obesity, stress, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease etc.Studies have also shown the implications of gut microbiota in lipid and energy metabolism through the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Gut microbiota dysbiosis initiates the pathways related to SCFAs and induce disease development. The dominant bacterium phyla in the gut are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Air pollution is also one of the environmental factors which affect the gut microbiota. The harmful minute particulate matter of air pollution, toxic gases like CO2, SO2, and many other toxic gases and chemical compoundsconstitutes universal hazards which may also affect the gut microbiota. This chapter includes predominant gut microbes, their importance and environmental factors influencing them.