Microbial Biofilms: An Overview | Original Article
Biofilm is a prominent feature of micro-organisms, in which microbial cells attach to each other in a living or non-living environment within a self-propelled grid of extracellular polymeric substance. The extracellular polymeric matrix plays an important role in the formation and function of microbial biofilms. The first stage of attachment to the substratum provides a fixed structure, fusion, physical interaction and genetic traits in the bacterial community. Biofilms are affected by certain physiological factors such as the surface of the adhesive object, the flow of water, the sound of a quorum etc. This accumulation of mono- or poly-microbial aggregates microorganisms is commonly referred to as biofilm and may involve various bacterial communities of fungi. Biological interactions facilitate substrate exchange, distribution of metabolic products and removal of toxic end products so that different species can support each other. In addition, the formation of biofilm communities can protect their bacteria from attack by antimicrobials, shear forces and antibodies. This unique feature of microbes helps them to adapt to any harsh environment and promotes its function. This is an overview that how microbial biofilms are formed, various stages involved and certain factors which affect their growth and development.